Category Archives: Technology

Difficult Concept: Teaching Sampling Error and Sampling Distribution of the Means

I am currently teaching sampling distribution of the means and sampling error to my students. They are difficult concepts to convey to students, and unlike much of my teaching, where lecture comprises a fair portion of my teaching time, I find myself “slowing down” the progress at this point by putting more of the activities in the hands of the students, forcing   them to participate in activities during class time, and requiring them to generate ideas in and out of class.

There are three activities that I use to help students learn the concept of the sampling distribution of the means and sampling error.

(1)    Generating hypothesis, then identifying “individual differences in extraneous variables”

  • First, I model for them, using the Socratic method (asking them questions as a means of leading them to the answer), how to identify individual differences. I first do this when introducing extraneous variables, during the first week or two of class, and periodically do so throughout the first half of the semester, anytime I speak of Independent, Dependent, or Subject Variables, I have students generate the extraneous variables as well. This task, repeated early on, and especially as we approach sampling error, not only helps students to understand sampling error, but it makes the teaching of confounds easier as well. (Sampling error are random variations in extraneous variables, while confounds are systematic variations in extraneous variables.)
  • I assign for homework, that students have to generate a hypothesis (by this point, they have been doing this throughout the semester), then generate a list of 10 individual differences in extraneous variables.
  • During class time, they form groups, to discuss and critique each others’ list, then generate another list, as a group, that gets graded as a quiz. Truthfully, I have too many students (and no TA)  to grade all 80 of these assignments, by working in groups of 5, I have little trouble grading the list.

Notice how much time I spend on the concept of individual differences and extraneous variables. But, as a critical concept, it is time well spent. Truthfully, it comprises about 50 minutes, but it typically takes place over the course of weeks, helping build students’ thinking.

(2)    M&E creation of a pseudo empirical distribution of the means.

  • I formally model sampling distribution in class with the M&M demonstration.  Though I’ve described this activity before, I’ll describe it again here.
  • I get plain M&M’s whose proportion by color is: 24% blue, 14% brown, 16% green, 20% orange, 13% red, and 14% yellow.
  • Each color receive a value (e.g., 1 – 6).
  • I calculate what the mu would be given the stated proportions.
  • I have students randomly sample N=X (that value depends on how many M&M’s I have to share with the students, 10 should be the smallest value).
  • Students then calculate the mean for their sample.
  • Then I have them report their sample means, I enter them into Excel and do a very quick (and sloppy) empirical sampling distribution, and tell them what mu is.
  • We compare our mean of the mean to the mu, and talk about the variability in the rest of the sample means.  
  • We talk about how their individual sample means differ from mu and why.
  • It seems so obvious to the students, that I can then switch over to other examples, like dog weight or performance on at recall for a list of words. 
  • Students generate the extraneous variables that serve as sampling error, just as the colors of the M&M’s can serve as sampling error.

(3)    I end with having students participate in a Mathematica Demonstration, both in and outside of class.  If you haven’t used Mathematica Demonstrations, start with  reviewing this prior blog or this one

If you have used Mathematica, this demonstration works well in helping students to understanding the sampling distribution of the means

This year, I am requiring that student answer a series of questions about each mathematic demonstration to see if focusing them on the activity will increase what they are gaining from it.

For this demonstration the questions are as follows:

1. Try three different sample sizes. Which ones did you select? Draw the sampling distribution of the means by each N. What happens to the shape of the sampling distribution of the mean as N gets larger? Explain why this happens.

2. Using N = 15, change mu. What happens to the shape of the sampling distribution of the means as mu changes? Explain why this happens.  

3. Write the symbol for standard error. Change the standard deviation. What happens to the standard error as sigma gets larger? Explain why this happens.

4. Define Sampling Distribution of the Means. Define sampling error. What value do we calculate to find sampling error. Write down that formula. Why is this such an important part of statistics?

As with all of our difficult concepts. If you have any recommendations, I encourage you to  first work on getting it published in and then let us know about it!

Leave a comment

Filed under Engaging students, Sampling Distribution, Technology

“I’m sexy and I know it … ”

If students don’t believe that learning statistics is a worthwhile adventure, will they try? Yet, we all know students are bombarded with messages that statistics are hard, incomprehensible, mysterious, or just plain wrong. Students are well aware of the inaccurate, though oft stated  comment that you can say whatever you want with statistics. My response is not if you know to use and interpret statistics.

So, how can we counteract the big push against the need for students to learn statistics.

Tell students the truth! Applied statistics is sexy!

I have comprised a few short articles and clips that characterize that statistics jobs are “sexy” and in demand.  

If you have other resources, please let me know, and I’ll add them to the list.

TED Talk by Arthur Benjamin

For Today’s Graduate Just One Word: Statistics (NY Times)

Why Math and Statistics are Sexy

Hal Varian’s “Sexy Job”

 Now, what we need is a set of graduate students to pull together a video with statistics mocking the song, “I’m sexy and I know it.” It’s only a matter of time until someone creates such a video. When you do (or if you see it), please let me know.

I’m going to end with a TED Talk that I found it both interesting and funny  that further demonstrates … we all need to understand statistics and how it can be used, lest someone takes us down some incredible path, far from where we should be going.

Happy calculating!

Leave a comment

Filed under Engaging students, Technology

Khan Academy

Hello All,

As we get ready for the up coming semester, I thought I would provide you with a few short posts highlighting things that may help you prepare for  your upcoming semester.

I’m sure I’m not alone in having students who have conceptual gaps in basic mathematics. I have brought up specific areas in prior blogs, where students conceptual weaknesses interfere with their ability to master statistics. One method that I use for helping students overcome those gaps is to refer students to specific sections on a free educational website called Khan Academy,

There are videos and exercises mostly in the area of mathematics and applied mathematics, like statistics. The skill set starts at the elementary school level and continues through the college level. There are almost 60 different videos available on Khan Academy just for statistics, with more becoming available every day.

So … what are the two practice problems and video’s I refer students to the most???? ANOVA, t-test, standard deviation … nope … Order of Operation and Points on a Number Line are the two practice problems and video clips I am most likely to refer my students to.

Sure, I would rather have students come to me with their math skills in tact … but absent of that, I am grateful for Khan Academy, and highly encourage you to refer it to your students.

Happy preparation!

Leave a comment

Filed under Technology


So, someone might ask … Bonnie, what do you before the start of the spring semester? Well, I spend at least part of the time ramping up my course delivery software. I started using software to accompany my classroom teaching the first time I taught a college course while in graduate school. I believe I used Blackboard. Since that time, I’ve used a slew of different software packages, most of whom have been purchased by Blackboard.

However, last year, an administrative decision was made in Harrisburg that all Pennsylvania state school faculty would use D2L, Desire -2- Learn. It’s neither better nor worse than other packages, however, most textbook supplements are not set up to interface well with D2L. Thus, if you are using Kiess and Green (2010) Statistical Concepts to the Behavioral Sciences, 4/e, and are using D2L at your university, please, before you go through the trouble of getting all of the supplemental materials downloaded into D2L, contact me, and I can provide you with a copy ready for your applied statistics course.

May you all have a restful and productive break between semesters!

Leave a comment

Filed under Technology