# Category Archives: effect size

## How wonderful and I wish, I wish …

As I type this, I have one fifty minute class left to teach, and my time with my statistics class will be over. As with anything, each semester is varied. Some semesters I cover more information than other semesters. I liken this semester to driving through the city and hitting all green lights! As such, I believe my students were able to master additional information based on what is probably mostly good fortune.

So, here is my list of things I’m so thrilled I covered:

(1) Effect size statistics, like eta squared: Sure effect size statistics are not used that much, and lets face it, they are super easy to calculate, but my biggest reason for wanting to teach effect size statistics is it helps students to understand what a t-test or F-test can tell us (is there a difference) and what it can’t tell (how big is the effect). In fact, by spending about 20 minutes on the teaching of effect size statistics, students were better able to understand why the “p-value” for an observed t or F score provides us with no information. All we need to know is, did we pass the threshold.

(2) We find the critical value BEFORE calculating the observed value: This discussion helps focus student on the logic of statistical hypothesis testing. Specifically, statistical hypothesis testing works because we assume that the null hypothesis is true, that there is no effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. With this assumption, we are able to generate the sampling distribution that provides us with information on the standard error. Now, if our sample mean is too extreme, we reject our initial hypothesis, the null, and accept the alternative hypothesis, that is the means are different. By finding the critical value prior to calculating the statistic, it helps focus students on that “line in the sand” to say … my observations are too extreme for me to stay with my current hypothesis. Students are far less likely to fall victim to equating p-value with the strength of the effect of the independent variable, or to conclude … the data is trending because I have a p-value of .07 or some other funky thing far too many people do with null hypothesis testing. By spending a bit more time on the steps involved in hypothesis testing, I think students are less likely to fall victim to the common misconceptions surrounding Statistical Null Hypothesis Testing.

(3) Though not a specific concept, I am pleased that for almost every concept I taught this semester I used new examples. Sure, I’m still a sage in training, no grey hair and all, but I was beginning to find myself using the same examples. As this is the third semester my supplement instructor, Amy, is taking notes in class, I felt I owed it to her, at least, to “keep it fresh.” I also found thinking about this blog helped spur my mind toward different examples. In doing so, I found some worked even better than my “old stand by” examples, but the great things was, when the new example flopped, I just quickly switched to the example I knew helped students.

Now for my Wish List of things I always wished I could have covered, but didn’t.

(1) Though I do get to cover the concepts of the F-test. I teach a three credit class, and only have time to cover the one-factor between subject ANOVA. If only I could cover a two-factor between subject ANOVA and a one-factor within subject ANOVA, I would feel my students would really understand the F-test (and as such, be less incline to misuse or over use it).

(2) Yet, I feel if I could cover non-parametrics, students would better understand the role of the assumptions in parametric tests, and issues like Power and random error could be even better understood. Plus they would get the benefit of learning about a really important class of statistics. Sadly, another semester has passed without me being able to cover this topic with the depth I think it deserves.

(3) I fear I don’t emphasize the weakness of statistics, and that they are only as good as the quality of the theories being tested in the design. They are also only as good as the quality of the sample and the quality of the measure. At least the latter two concepts get covered in classes that will follow the statistics class. But so few people speak of the topic of equifinity, that the same outcome can have multiple explanations. Again, though I touch on this, the idea of developing the alternative rival hypotheses that could explain the same empirical evidence is one I simply don’t have time to cover to the extent I would like. If you have a weak theory or haven’t taken into account the alternative rival hypotheses when designing your study, cool statistics will not improve the quality of your findings.

(4) Though I tell students the hypothesis drive everything, from the selection of the measure and research design, to the specific statistic one would select, and though there are example problems in the textbook (Integrating Your Knowledge) that students have to complete, I really wish we could spend more time on this.

Maybe next semester, I can find a way to reach my wish list … maybe!